The average and minimum temperatures differ among Russian regions. Winter is most severe in hinterland Yakutia (where no major armed conflicts have occurred to date), with the lowest temperature about −65°C (-85°F). In European Russia (west of the Ural mountains), where most battles were fought, the average winter temperature is rarely below −20°C (-4°F), but varies greatly: for example, temperatures in the winter of 2005/2006 fell to −20°C (-4°F) or −30°C (-22°F) in Moscow. . But most recent winters in central Russia have been unusually warm. A New Year's Day without snow in Moscow and temperatures up to 10°C (50°F) in the middle of winter are no longer rare.
One factor in Russia's temperature is its continental climate. The other is the geography of Russia: it is as far north as Canada, but has little open inland water to store the sun's energy. For example, in the Altai region in August, the temperature is above 20°C (68°F) during the day, but at night can fall as low as −5°C (23°F).